Arthur Lupia, professor of political science at the University of Michigan, tells The New York Times that President Trump and other Republican insurgents have been better at mobilizing their troops than the party's establishment wing: "Some mass media outlets, and significant social media players, produce a steady stream of polarizing content that keeps members of the group hypervigilant towards real and imagined threats from globalists, foreigners and the American left."

Professor Lupia's work examines how people make decisions when they lack information and in how they manage complex information flows.