Developments of the particle colliders over last 50 years have seen tremendous progress in both energy of the collisions and intensity of the colliding beams. In order to reach higher collision energy and discover even heavier particles many fundamental inventions in the colliders design have been achieved. Progress to even higher energies was strongly stimulated by physics interests in studying smaller and smaller distances and in creation of heavier and heavier elementary particles. Experiments at such colliders required major breakthroughs in the particle detection methods in order to discover all remaining standard model elementary particles: c and t quarks, gluons, tau lepton, W, Z and Higgs bosons. Options for even higher energy colliders than operating today will also be discussed in the talk, including their design parameters, acceleration principles as well as construction challenges. Such colliders is the only way to understanding the Nature at even smaller distances and create particles with even higher masses than we can reach today.
Dmitri Denisov (Fermilab)