Modern Western sciences are supposed to be the jewels in the crown of modernization theory and its commitments to secularism. Yet a lively critical discussion of Western secularism has emerged in the social sciences. Moreover, recent histories of science have revealed the surprisingly deep Christian religious commitments of modern Western sciences. Women have always had a different relation to religion than their brothers in virtually every culture. What are the distinctive feminist questions in this mix of issues about science, secularism, and multicultural liberal democracies?